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Am J Med Genet. 1999 Jul 16;85(2):127-33.

Cognitive and behavior profile of preschool children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion.

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Division of Child Development, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4399, USA.


A microscopic deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 has been identified in most patients with the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, and in some patients with isolated conotruncal cardiac anomalies. This study presents the neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive development, language development, speech, neuromuscular development, and behavioral characteristics of 40 preschool children (ages 13 to 63 months) who have been diagnosed with the 22q11.2 deletion. The impact of cardiac disease, cardiac surgery, and the palatal anomalies on this population was also studied. In the preschool years, children with a 22q11.2 deletion are most commonly found to be developmentally delayed, have mild hypotonia, and language and speech delays. The more significantly delayed children are at high risk to be subsequently diagnosed with mild or moderate mental retardation. The global delays and the variations in intelligence found are directly associated with the 22q11.2 deletion and are not explained by physical anomalies such as palatal defects or cardiac defects, or therapeutic interventions such as cardiac surgery. Our findings demonstrate that there is a pattern of significant speech disorders within this population. All of the children had late onset of verbal speech. Behavioral outcomes included both inhibition and attention disorders. Early intervention services are strongly recommended beginning in infancy to address the delays in gross motor skills, speech and language, and global developmental delays.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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