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Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Jul;34(3):213-20.

Nosocomial fungal infections: candidemia.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Candida species are frequently encountered as part of the human commensal flora. Colonization mostly precedes candidemia and is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Genotyping methods showed the similarity between colonizing and infecting strains, thus making endogenous origin likely, though exogenous sources like total parenteral nutrition also have been described. Health care workers (HCWs) play an important role in the transmission of yeasts. Candida species are frequently isolated from the hands of HCWs and can be transmitted from hands to patients. Granulocytopenia and damage of the mucosal lining resulting from intensive chemotherapy due to cancer, the increasing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and the use of intravenous catheters are other important risk factors for the development of candidemia. Candidemia is associated with a high mortality and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, and because of the high frequency of dissemination, all candidemias should be treated. Amphotericin B was considered the standard drug for the systemic treatment of candidemia. Fluconazole has been shown to be an effective and safe alternative in non-neutropenic patients. 5-Fluorocytosine has been used in combination with amphotericin B in the treatment of deep-seated infections. Liposomal formulations of amphotericin B and other new antifungal drugs currently are under investigation. C. albicans is the most frequently isolated Candida species, although the proportion of infections caused by non-C. albicans species is increasing. Also, there are reports of development of resistance to amphotericin B. C. lusitaniae is known for primary resistance and the development of resistance to amphotericin B. Development of resistance to fluconazole is mainly seen in AIDS patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis who receive longer courses of therapy.

PMID:
10403101
DOI:
10.1016/s0732-8893(99)00035-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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