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Psychiatr Serv. 1999 Jul;50(7):959-61.

Validation of the empowerment scale with an outpatient mental health population.

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South Carolina Department of Mental Health, Columbia 29202, USA.


The validity of the Empowerment Scale was examined in an adult outpatient mental health population. A survey was mailed to 2,000 consumers in the South Carolina outpatient public mental health system, and 283 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 16.5 percent. Reliability and factor analyses confirmed five subscales of empowerment: esteem, power, activism, anger, and control. Respondents with full-time jobs scored significantly higher on overall empowerment and on the esteem, anger, and power subscales. Respondents with college experience scored higher on overall empowerment and the power subscale. Results indicate adequate validity of the scale in this population and provide direction for research on empowerment as a process and outcome variable.

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