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Am J Primatol. 1999;48(4):283-9.

Dominance in assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis).

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Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens 30602-3013, USA.


A field study of 64 assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) was conducted at a temple site in Assam, India. Focal and all occurrence scan techniques were used to collect data on agonistic, grooming, and sexual behavior. More than 1,000 hr of data were summarized into agonistic dominance, grooming, and mounting matrices. Rank hierarchies were constructed for all three and compared. We also directly compared each cell in each matrix with the corresponding cells in the other matrices. A nearly linear agonistic dominance hierarchy was found, but it did not correlate with the directionality of mounting or grooming. Adult males mounted females, generally were dominant to females and groomed females more often than they were groomed by females. Younger males groomed older males and were also generally subordinate to older males. These age and sex effects produced some inter-correlations among grooming, mounting, and dominance but only for specific age-sex classes. Theoretical models of social exchange were not considered useful in predicting the complex patterns of grooming, mounting, and dominance seen in the present group. Whereas such models may "explain" existing data for some groups and have gained widespread acceptance, they must be empirically tested.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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