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Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Jul;10(7):2285-95.

Functional and biochemical analysis of the C2 domains of synaptotagmin IV.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.

Abstract

Synaptotagmins (Syts) are a family of vesicle proteins that have been implicated in both regulated neurosecretion and general membrane trafficking. Calcium-dependent interactions mediated through their C2 domains are proposed to contribute to the mechanism by which Syts trigger calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release. Syt IV is a novel member of the Syt family that is induced by cell depolarization and has a rapid rate of synthesis and a short half-life. Moreover, the C2A domain of Syt IV does not bind calcium. We have examined the biochemical and functional properties of the C2 domains of Syt IV. Consistent with its non-calcium binding properties, the C2A domain of Syt IV binds syntaxin isoforms in a calcium-independent manner. In neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, Syt IV colocalizes with Syt I in the tips of the neurites. Microinjection of the C2A domain reveals that calcium-independent interactions mediated through this domain of Syt IV inhibit calcium-mediated neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells. Conversely, the C2B domain of Syt IV contains calcium binding properties, which permit homo-oligomerization as well as hetero-oligomerization with Syt I. Our observation that different combinatorial interactions exist between Syt and syntaxin isoforms, coupled with the calcium stimulated hetero-oligomerization of Syt isoforms, suggests that the secretory machinery contains a vast repertoire of biochemical properties for sensing calcium and regulating neurotransmitter release accordingly.

PMID:
10397765
PMCID:
PMC25443
DOI:
10.1091/mbc.10.7.2285
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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