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Curr Med Chem. 1999 Jul;6(7):599-614.

Nucleoside and non-nucleoside IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors as antitumor and antiviral agents.

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  • 1Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universit√† di Camerino, Via S. Agostino 1, Camerino, 62032, Italy.

Abstract

IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an enzyme which catalyzes the NAD-dependent conversion of inosine 5 -monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5 -monophosphate (XMP) at the metabolic branch point in the de novo purine nucleotide synthetic pathway. IMPDH was shown to be increased significantly in cancer cells and therefore considered to be a sensitive target for cancer chemotherapy. By blocking the conversion of IMP to XMP, IMPDH inhibitors lead to depletion of the guanylate (GMP, GDP, GTP and dGTP) pools. Two isoforms of human IMPDH, designed type I and type II, have been identified and sequenced. Type I is constitutively expressed and is the predominant isoform in normal cells, while type II is selectively up-regulated in neoplastic and replicating cells. Two types of IMPDH inhibitors, endowed with antineoplastic, antiviral and immunosoppressive activity, have been discovered so far: nucleoside inhibitors, such as ribavirin and tiazofurin, and non-nucleoside, such as mycophenolic acid. Ribavirin produces IMPDH inhibition via its anabolite 5 -monophosphate. Tiazofurin inhibits the enzyme after metabolic conversion into thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD), an analogue of the cofactor NAD. It was hypothesized that the inhibitory activity of tiazofurin is due to an attractive electrostatic interaction between the heterocyclic sulphur atom and the furanose oxygen 1 which constrain rotation about the C-glycosidic bond in tiazofurin and in its active anabolite TAD. To check this hypothesis, we studied several C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and their NAD analogues. Non-nucleoside IMPDH inhibitors are also reviewed.

PMID:
10390603
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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