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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999 Jul 1;44(4):801-8.

Intraoperative optimized inverse planning for prostate brachytherapy: early experience.

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  • 1Department of Urology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA.



To demonstrate the feasibility of an intraoperative inverse planning technique with advanced optimization for prostate seed implantation.


We have implemented a method for optimized inverse planning of prostate seed implantation in the operating room (OR), based on the genetic algorithm (GA) driven Prostate Implant Planning Engine for Radiotherapy (PIPER). An integrated treatment planning system was deployed, which includes real-time ultrasound image acquisition, treatment volume segmentation, GA optimization, real-time decision making and sensitivity analysis, isodose and DVH evaluation, and virtual reality navigation and surgical guidance. Ten consecutive patients previously scheduled for implantation were included in the series.


The feasibility of the technique was established by careful monitoring of each step in the OR and comparison with conventional preplanned implants. The median elapsed time for complete image capture, segmentation, GA optimization, and plan evaluation was 4, 10, 2.2, and 2 min, respectively. The dosimetric quality of the OR-based plan was shown to be equivalent to the corresponding preplan.


An intraoperative optimized inverse planning technique was developed for prostate brachytherapy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated through an early clinical experience.

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