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Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):227-38.

Manganese neurotoxicity: a review of clinical features, imaging and pathology.

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Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.


Manganese intoxication can result in a syndrome of parkinsonism and dystonia. If these extrapyramidal findings are present, they are likely to be irreversible and even progress after termination of the exposure to manganese. Clinical features are usually sufficient to distinguish these patients from those with Parkinson's disease. The neurological syndrome does not respond to levodopa. Imaging of the brain may reveal MRI signal changes in the globus pallidus, striatum, and midbrain. Positron emission tomography reveals normal presynaptic and postsynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic function. The primary site of neurological damage has been shown by pathological studies to be the globus pallidus. The mechanism of toxicity is not clear.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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