Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Science. 1999 Jun 25;284(5423):2156-9.

On the weakening relationship between the indian monsoon and ENSO

Author information

International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) of Columbia University, Post Office Box 1000, Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964-8000, USA. LDEO of Columbia University, Post Office Box 1000, Rou.


Analysis of the 140-year historical record suggests that the inverse relationship between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian summer monsoon (weak monsoon arising from warm ENSO event) has broken down in recent decades. Two possible reasons emerge from the analyses. A southeastward shift in the Walker circulation anomalies associated with ENSO events may lead to a reduced subsidence over the Indian region, thus favoring normal monsoon conditions. Additionally, increased surface temperatures over Eurasia in winter and spring, which are a part of the midlatitude continental warming trend, may favor the enhanced land-ocean thermal gradient conducive to a strong monsoon. These observations raise the possibility that the Eurasian warming in recent decades helps to sustain the monsoon rainfall at a normal level despite strong ENSO events.

Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center