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Res Q Exerc Sport. 1999 Jun;70(2):120-6.

The learning advantages of an external focus of attention in golf.

Author information

1
Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, Munich. wulf@mpipf-muenchen.mpg.de

Abstract

This study examined whether the learning advantages of an external focus of attention relative to an internal focus, as demonstrated by Wulf, Höss, and Prinz (1998), would also be found for a sport skill under field-like conditions. Participants (9 women, 13 men; age range: 21-29 years) without experience in golf were required to practice pitch shots. The practice phase consisted of 80 practice trials. One group was instructed to focus on the arm swing (internal focus), whereas another group was instructed to focus on the club swing (external focus). One day after practice, a retention test of 30 trials without instructions was performed. The external-focus condition was more effective for performance during both practice and retention.

PMID:
10380243
DOI:
10.1080/02701367.1999.10608029
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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