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Infect Immun. 1999 Jul;67(7):3619-24.

Salmonella typhi flagella are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes.

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  • 1Center for Vaccine Development, Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.


The cytokine production patterns of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) were examined in culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated with STF. Consistent with previous findings in volunteers vaccinated with aroC aroD deletion mutants of S. typhi, PBMC from volunteers immunized with the licensed live Ty21a S. typhi vaccine secreted gamma interferon following exposure to STF. Stimulation with STF induced rapid de novo synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), followed by IL-6 and IL-10. Trypsin treatment of STF abrogated their effects, while polymyxin B had no effect. Intracellular cytokine measurements of STF-stimulated PBMC revealed the existence of monocyte subpopulations that produce only TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or both cytokines. Moreover, STF markedly decreased the percentage of CD14(+) cells. These data demonstrate that STF are powerful monocyte activators which may have important implications for vaccine development and for understanding the pathogenesis of S. typhi infection.

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