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Leukemia. 1999 May;13(5):811-7.

Profiles and prognostic values of LDH isoenzymes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Service d'Hématologie et Service de Biochimie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, France.


Serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important prognostic factor in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We have examined the LDH isoenzyme content in serum and CSF of patients with NHL, at diagnosis and at relapse. In patients with increased serum LDH at diagnosis, the percentage of isoenzyme 2 was increased in 52% of patients and the absolute value of isoenzyme 3 was increased in 64% of patients. In relapsing patients these values were respectively 69% and 65%. Conversely in patients with increased serum LDH due to myeloid regeneration after chemotherapy, isoenzymes 4 and 5, but not isoenzymes 2 or 3, were increased. High absolute values of isoenzyme 3 were correlated with an altered performance status, advanced tumor stage, and aggressive histology whereas high isoenzyme 2 percentages were correlated with altered performance status only. Among patients with high total serum LDH, a high content of isoenzyme 2 and a high absolute value of isoenzyme 3 were correlated with high serum levels of TNFalpha and TNF receptor p75. Analysis of total LDH and LDH isoenzyme profiles in CSF did not reveal any correlation with meningeal involvement by lymphoma. High isoenzyme 2 percentages and high absolute values of isoenzyme 3 in serum were both significantly associated with a shorter freedom-from-progression and overall survival. Isoenzyme 3 remained a prognostic factor for survival even when considering only patients with high total serum LDH at diagnosis. We conclude that there are some characteristic serum LDH isoenzyme profiles in patients with NHL and that some of these specific alterations may help refine the prognostic value of total serum LDH.

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