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EMBO J. 1999 Jun 15;18(12):3392-403.

Net, a negative Ras-switchable TCF, contains a second inhibition domain, the CID, that mediates repression through interactions with CtBP and de-acetylation.

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Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, ECNRS/INSERM/ULP, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 163, 67404 Illkirch cedex, France.


Signalling cascades are integrated at the transcriptional level by the interplay between factors such as the ternary complex factors (TCFs) that interact with serum response factor (SRF) and the serum response element (SRE) of the fos promoter. Net is a negative TCF that is switched to a positive regulator by the Ras signal. To understand the mechanisms of repression by Net, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify factors that interact with its inhibitory domain. We isolated mCtBP1, the murine homologue of huCtBP1, a factor implicated in negative regulation of transformation by E1A plus Ras. We show that mCtBP1 interacts strongly with Net both in vitro and in vivo. The CtBP interaction domain of Net, the CID, mediates repression independently of the previously identified negative element, the NID. The CID inhibits by recruiting the co-repressor mCtBP1. The CID and mCtBP1 need to use de-acetylase activity for repression, whereas the NID apparently represses by other mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence that CtBP and de-acetylation repress the c-fos SRE in low serum when it is inactive, but not in high serum when it is active. These results provide insights into the cross-talk between pathways that inhibit and stimulate transformation at the level of Net, a regulator of gene expression.

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