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J Periodontol. 1999 May;70(5):478-84.

Relationship between herpesviruses and adult periodontitis and periodontopathic bacteria.

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1
Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089-0641, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Various mammalian viruses and specific bacteria seem to play important roles in the pathogenesis of human periodontitis. This study examined the relationship between subgingival herpesviruses and periodontal disease and potential periodontopathic bacteria in 140 adults exhibiting either periodontitis or gingivitis.

METHODS:

A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method determined the presence of Epstein-Barr virus type 1 and type 2 (EBV-1, EBV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) and a 16S rRNA PCR detection method identified Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Treponema denticola.

RESULTS:

Using a logistic analysis, EBV-1 showed significant positive association with P. gingivalis (odds ratio [OR] 3.37), and with coinfections of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia (OR 4.03); P. gingivalis and B. forsythus (OR 3.84); P. gingivalis and T. denticola (OR 4.17); P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, and T. denticola (OR 4.06); and P. gingivalis, P. nigrescens, and T. denticola (OR 3.29). EBV-1 also showed positive association with severe periodontitis (OR 5.09), with increasing age (OR 1.03), and with periodontal probing depth at the sample sites (OR 1.77). HCMV was positively associated with coinfections of P. gingivalis and P. nigrescens (OR 3.23); P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, and P. nigrescens (OR 3.23); and P. gingivalis, P. nigrescens, and T. denticola (OR 2.59); with severe periodontitis (OR 4.65); and with age (OR 1.03). Patients with mixed viral infections revealed significant associations with P. gingivalis (OR 2.27), and with coinfections of P. gingivalis and B. forsythus (OR 2.06); P. gingivalis and P. nigrescens (OR 2.91); P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, and P. nigrescens (OR 2.91); and P. gingivalis, P. nigrescens, and T. denticola (OR 2.70) with the clinical diagnosis of slight (OR 3.73), moderate (OR 3.82), or severe periodontitis (OR 4.36), and with probing depth at the sample sites (OR 1.39). HSV and EBV-2 showed no significant associations with any of the variables tested.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results indicate that subgingival EBV-1, HCMV, and viral coinfections are associated with the subgingival presence of some periodontal pathogens and periodontitis. Herpesviruses may exert periodontopathic potential by decreasing the host resistance against subgingival colonization and multiplication of periodontal pathogens.

PMID:
10368051
DOI:
10.1902/jop.1999.70.5.478
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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