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Cell. 1999 May 28;97(5):575-86.

Induction of GADD45 and JNK/SAPK-dependent apoptosis following inducible expression of BRCA1.

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Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown 02129, USA.


The breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 encodes a protein implicated in the cellular response to DNA damage, with postulated roles in homologous recombination as well as transcriptional regulation. To identify downstream target genes, we established cell lines with tightly regulated inducible expression of BRCA1. High-density oligonucleotide arrays were used to analyze gene expression profiles at various times following BRCA1 induction. A major BRCA1 target is the DNA damage-responsive gene GADD45. Induction of BRCA1 triggers apoptosis through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), a signaling pathway potentially linked to GADD45 gene family members. The p53-independent induction of GADD45 by BRCA1 and its activation of JNK/SAPK suggest a pathway for BRCA1-induced apoptosis.

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