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Vision Res. 1999 Jul;39(14):2299-303.

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is localized to Müller cells in all vertebrate retinas.

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Neurobiology Department, University of Oldenburg, Germany.


The distribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity (eNOS-IR) was investigated in the retinas of all phylogenetic vertebrate classes by using a monoclonal eNOS antibody. Confocal light microscopy showed immunoreactive labeling in Müller cells of fish, frog, salamander, turtle, chicken, rat, ground squirrel, and monkey retina. In vascularized retinas (rat, monkey), astrocytes and some blood vessels were also stained. Furthermore, eNOS-IR was localized to axon terminals of turtle and fish horizontal cells. These observations are the first to show the presence of eNOS-IR in Muller glia and horizontal cell structures of the vertebrate retina.

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