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Plant J. 1999 Apr;18(2):195-203.

The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression.

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Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706-1544, USA.


Mutations in the LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis) confer a late-flowering phenotype, indicating that LD normally functions to promote the floral transition. RNA and protein blot analyses, along with the analysis of transgenic plants containing a fusion between a genomic fragment of LD and the reporter gene uidA (GUS), indicate that LD is expressed primarily ipical proliferative regions of the shoot and root, including the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. Subcellular localization studies indicate that LD is a nuclear protein, consistent with its previously proposed transcriptional regulatory role. We have also found that in an apetala1 cauliflower (ap1 cal) background the ld mutation converts the reproductive shoot apex to a more vegetative state, a phenotype that is similar to that seen for the leafy (lfy) mutant. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis indicates that LFY levels are drastically reduced at the apex of ld ap1 cal plants after bolting. These data are consistent with the idea that at least one function of LD is to participate in the regulation of LFY.

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