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Oncogene. 1999 Jun 3;18(22):3376-82.

Constitutive activation of stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G(S)alphaQL)-mediated signaling increases invasiveness and tumorigenicity of PC-3M prostate cancer cells.

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Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160, USA.


An abnormal stimulation of cAMP signaling cascade has been implicated in various human carcinomas. Since the agents activating G(S)alpha-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to increase in vitro proliferation of prostate cancer cells, present studies examined the G(S)alpha-mediated signaling in tumorigenicity and invasiveness of PC-3M prostate cancer cells. PC-3M cells were stably transfected with plasmids containing either wild type (G(S)alpha-WT) or constitutively active (gsp mutant of G(S)alpha or G(S)alpha-QL) cDNAs. The stable transfectants were then tested for: (1) colony formation in soft agar; (2) cell migration and penetration of basement matrix in an in vitro invasion assay; and (3) the ability to form tumors and metastases in nude mice. PC-3M cells expressing G(S)alpha-QL protein displayed 15-fold increase in their ability to migrate and penetrate the basement membrane as compared to parental PC-3M cells or those expressing G(S)alpha-WT. G(S)alpha-QL transfectants also displayed a dramatically greater rate of growth in soft agar, and greater tumorigenicity and metastasis forming ability when orthotopically implanted in nude mice. All mice receiving PC-3M cells produced primary tumors within 5 weeks after implantation. However, the cells expressing G(S)alpha-QL displayed a significantly faster tumor growth as assessed by prostate weight (greater than 20-fold as compared to PC-3M cells), and produced metastases in kidneys, lymph nodes, blood vessels, bowel mesentery and intestine. Interestingly, expression of G(S)alpha-WT reduced the ability of PC-3M cells to form tumors in nude mice. These results suggest that persistent activation of G(S)alpha-mediated signaling cascade can dramatically accelerate tumorigenesis and metastasizing ability of prostate cancer cells.

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