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Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 1;38(22):7227-34.

Molecular dissection of the C-terminal regulatory domain of the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA2: mapping of residues that when altered give rise to an activated enzyme.

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Department of Plant Biology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.


The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily and is important for nutrient acquisition in plants. The H+-ATPase is controlled by an autoinhibitory C-terminal regulatory domain and is activated by 14-3-3 proteins which bind to this part of the enzyme. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis through 87 consecutive amino acid residues was used to evaluate the role of the C-terminus in autoinhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutant enzymes were expressed in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a defective endogenous H+-ATPase. The enzymes were characterized by their ability to promote growth in acidic conditions and to promote H+ extrusion from intact cells, both of which are measures of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity, and were also characterized with respect to kinetic properties such as affinity for H+ and ATP. Residues that when altered lead to increased pump activity group together in two regions of the C-terminus. One region stretches from K863 to L885 and includes two residues (Q879 and R880) that are conserved between plant and fungal H+-ATPases. The other region, incorporating S904 to L919, is situated in an extension of the C-terminus unique to plant H+-ATPases. Alteration of residues in both regions led to increased binding of yeast 14-3-3 protein to the plasma membrane of transformed cells. Taken together, our data suggest that modification of residues in two regions of the C-terminal regulatory domain exposes a latent binding site for activatory 14-3-3 proteins.

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