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Am J Kidney Dis. 1999 Jun;33(6):1115-21.

Effect of dialysate temperature on energy balance during hemodialysis: quantification of extracorporeal energy transfer.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.


An impaired vascular response is implicated in the pathogenesis of dialysis-induced hypotension, which is at least partly related to changes in extracorporeal blood temperature (Temp). However, little is known about changes in core Temp and differences in energy balance between standard and cool dialysis. In this study, core Temp and energy transfer between extracorporeal circuit and patient, as well as the blood pressure response, were assessed during dialysis with standard (37.5 degrees C) and cool (35.5 degrees C) Temp of the dialysate. Nine patients (4 men, 5 women; mean age, 69 +/-10 [SD] years) were studied during low- and standard-Temp dialysis, each serving as his or her own control. Bicarbonate dialysis and hemophane membranes were used. Energy transfer was assessed by continuous measurement of Temp in the arterial (Tart) and venous side (Tven) of the extracorporeal system according to the formula: c. rho.Qb*(Tven - Tart)*t, where c = specific thermal capacity (3.64 kJ/kg* degrees C), Qb = extracorporeal blood flow, rho = density of blood (1,052 kg/m3), and t = dialysis time (hours). Core Temp was also measured by Blood Temperature Monitoring (BTM; Fresenius, Bad Homburg, Germany). Core Temp increased during standard-Temp dialysis (36.7 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C to 37.2 degrees C +/- 0.2 degrees C; P < 0.05) despite a small negative energy balance (-85 +/- 43 kJ) from the patient to the extracorporeal circuit. During cool dialysis, energy loss was much more pronounced (-286 +/- 73 kJ; P < 0.05). However, mean core Temp remained stable (36.4 degrees C +/- 0.6 degrees C to 36.4 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C; P = not significant), and even increased in some patients with a low predialytic core Temp. Both during standard and cool dialysis, the increase in core Temp during dialysis was significantly related to predialytic core Temp (r = 0.88 and r = 0.77; P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure (RR) decreased to a greater degree during standard-Temp dialysis compared with cool dialysis (43 +/- 21 v 22 +/- 26 mm Hg; P < 0.05), whereas diastolic RR tended to decrease more (15 +/- 10 v 0 +/- 19 mm Hg; P = 0.07). Core Temp increased in all patients during standard-Temp dialysis despite a small net energy transfer from the patient to the extracorporeal system. Concluding, Core Temp remained generally stable during cool dialysis despite significant energy loss from the patient to the extracorporeal circuit, and even increased in some patients with a low predialytic core Temp. The change in core Temp during standard and cool dialysis was significantly related to the predialytic blood Temp of the patient, both during cool- and standard-Temp dialysis. The results suggest that the hemodialysis procedure itself affects core Temp regulation, which may have important consequences for the vascular response during hypovolemia. The removal of heat by the extracorporeal circuit and/or the activation of autoregulatory mechanisms attempting to preserve core Temp might be responsible for the beneficial hemodynamic effects of cool dialysis.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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