Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 May;8(5):439-45.

Urinary excretion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in White, African-American, and Asian-American men in Los Angeles County.

Author information

  • 1Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139-4307, USA.


Meats, such as beef, pork, poultry, and fish, cooked at high temperatures produce heterocyclic aromatic amines, which have been implicated indirectly as etiological agents involved in colorectal and other cancers in humans. This study examined the urinary excretion of a mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), among 45 African-American, 42 Asian-American (Chinese or Japanese), and 42 non-Hispanic white male residents of Los Angeles who consumed an unrestricted diet. Total PhIP (free and conjugated) was isolated from overnight urine collections, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and then quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Geometric mean levels of PhIP in Asian-Americans and African-Americans were approximately 2.8-fold higher than in whites. The urinary excretion levels of PhIP were not associated with intake frequencies of any cooked meat based on a self-administered dietary questionnaire, in contrast to our earlier finding (Ji et al., Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 3: 407-411, 1994) of a positive and statistically significant association between bacon intake and the urinary level of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) among this same group of study subjects. Although there is a statistically significant association between urinary levels of PhIP and MeIQx (2-sided P = 0.001), 10 subjects (8%) displayed extreme discordance between urinary PhIP and MeIQx levels. Several factors, including variable contents of heterocyclic aromatic amines in food, enzymic and interindividual metabolic differences, and analytical methodology determine the degree of concordance between the urinary excretion levels of PhIP and MeIQx. Accordingly, urinary excretion levels of a single heterocyclic aromatic amine can only serve as an approximate measure of another in estimating exposure to these compounds in humans consuming unrestricted diets.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center