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J Biol Chem. 1999 Jun 4;274(23):16257-68.

Substance P-induced trafficking of beta-arrestins. The role of beta-arrestins in endocytosis of the neurokinin-1 receptor.

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Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0660, USA.


Agonist-induced redistribution of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and beta-arrestins determines the subsequent cellular responsiveness to agonists and is important for signal transduction. We examined substance P (SP)-induced trafficking of beta-arrestin1 and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in KNRK cells in real time using green fluorescent protein. Green fluorescent protein did not alter function or localization of the NK1R or beta-arrestin1. SP induced (a) striking and rapid (<1 min) translocation of beta-arrestin1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, which preceded NK1R endocytosis; (b) redistribution of the NK1R and beta-arrestin1 into the same endosomes containing SP and the transferrin receptor (2-10 min); (c) prolonged colocalization of the NK1R and beta-arrestin1 in endosomes (>60 min); (d) gradual resumption of the steady state distribution of the NK1R at the plasma membrane and beta-arrestin1 in the cytosol (4-6 h). SP stimulated a similar redistribution of immunoreactive beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2. In contrast, SP did not affect Galphaq/11 distribution, which remained at the plasma membrane. Expression of the dominant negative beta-arrestin319-418 inhibited SP-induced endocytosis of the NK1R. Thus, SP induces rapid translocation of beta-arrestins to the plasma membrane, where they participate in NK1R endocytosis. beta-Arrestins colocalize with the NK1R in endosomes until the NK1R recycles and beta-arrestins return to the cytosol.

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