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Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 May;7(2):151-9.

Effects of olfactory stimuli on urge reduction in smokers.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. sayette+@pitt.edu

Abstract

This study examined the possibility that exposure to olfactory stimuli can reduce self-reported urge to smoke. After an initial assessment of self-reported urge, nicotine-deprived smokers evaluated the pleasantness of a series of 8 odors. Facial expressions during odor presentations were coded with P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1978a) Facial Action Coding System. After odor administration, participants were exposed to smoking cues. Next, participants were administered their most pleasant, least pleasant, or a control odor (water) and reported their urge to smoke. Results indicated that sniffing either a pleasant or unpleasant odor reduced reported urge to smoke relative to the control odor. Reported pleasantness of the odors did not differentially affect urge reduction. Odors eliciting negative-affect-related expressions, however, were less effective than odors that did not elicit negative-affect-related expressions in reducing reported urge. Results of this preliminary investigation provide support for the consideration of odor stimuli as an approach to craving reduction.

PMID:
10340155
PMCID:
PMC3712336
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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