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Radiographics. 1999 May-Jun;19(3):783-806.

Three-dimensional visualization and analysis methodologies: a current perspective.

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Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6021, USA.


Three-dimensional (3D) imaging was developed to provide both qualitative and quantitative information about an object or object system from images obtained with multiple modalities including digital radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and ultrasonography. Three-dimensional imaging operations may be classified under four basic headings: preprocessing, visualization, manipulation, and analysis. Preprocessing operations (volume of interest, filtering, interpolation, registration, segmentation) are aimed at extracting or improving the extraction of object information in given images. Visualization operations facilitate seeing and comprehending objects in their full dimensionality and may be either scene-based or object-based. Manipulation may be either rigid or deformable and allows alteration of object structures and of relationships between objects. Analysis operations, like visualization operations, may be either scene-based or object-based and deal with methods of quantifying object information. There are many challenges involving matters of precision, accuracy, and efficiency in 3D imaging. Nevertheless, 3D imaging is an exciting technology that promises to offer an expanding number and variety of applications.

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