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Diabetes Care. 1999 Jan;22(1):1-6.

Renal assessment practices and the effect of nurse case management of health maintenance organization patients with diabetes.

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  • 1Prudential Center for Health Care Research, Atlanta, Georgia 30339, USA.



To examine baseline renal screening practices and the effect of nurse case management of patients with diabetes in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO).


We performed both 1-year retrospective and 1-year prospective studies of renal assessment practices and ACE inhibitor usage in a cohort of 133 diabetic patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a diabetes nurse case management program in a group model HMO. In accordance with American Diabetes Association recommendations, urine dipstick and quantitative protein and microalbuminuria testing rates were calculated.


At baseline, 77% of patients were screened for proteinuria with dipsticks or had quantitative urine testing. Of patients with negative dipstick findings, 30% had appropriate quantitative protein or microalbumin follow-up at baseline. Baseline ACE inhibitor usage was associated with decreased follow-up testing (relative risk = 0.47). Nurse case management was associated with increased quantitative protein or or microalbumin testing and increased follow-up testing (relative risk = 1.65 and 1.60, respectively).


We found a higher degree of adherence to recommendations for renal testing than has been reported previously. Nurse case management intervention further increased renal screening rates. The inverse association between ACE inhibitor usage and microalbumin testing highlights a potentially ambiguous area of current clinical pathways.

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