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Microsc Res Tech. 1999 Apr 15;45(2):80-95.

FMRFamide neuropeptides and neuropeptide-associated enzymes in Drosophila.

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Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.


To review the histochemistry of neuropeptide transmitters system in insects, this chapter focuses on the biology of FMRFamide-related neuropeptides in Drosophila. dFMRFamide expression is limited to a small number of neurons that present a complex spatial pattern and whose functions appear heterogeneous. The neuropeptide is first expressed by a few neurons in late stage embryos, then dynamically in as many as 44 neurons in the larval CNS. This review describes histochemical procedures to evaluate this neuronal phenotype and its regulation, including descriptions of promoter activity, and RNA and peptide distributions. To evaluate the use of peptidergic transmitters on a broad scale, I also review experiments in Drosophila studying enzymes necessary for neuropeptide biosynthesis, and in particular, histochemical studies of an enzyme responsible for peptide alpha-amidation.

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