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Mol Biol Evol. 1999 Apr;16(4):429-40.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene diversity in eubacteria and eukaryotes: evidence for intra- and inter-kingdom gene transfer.

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  • 1Institut für Genetik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.

Abstract

Cyanobacteria contain up to three highly divergent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes: gap1, gap2, and gap3. Genes gap1 and gap2 are closely related at the sequence level to the nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and chloroplast GAPDH of higher plants and have recently been shown to play distinct key roles in catabolic and anabolic carbon flow, respectively, of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the present study, sequences of 10 GAPDH genes distributed across the cyanobacteria Prochloron didemni, Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421, and Synechococcus PCC7942 and the alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans and the beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum were determined. Prochloron didemni possesses homologs to the gap2 and gap3 genes from Anabaena, Gloeobacter harbors gap1 and gap2 homologs, and Synechococcus possesses gap1, gap2, and gap3. Paracoccus harbors two highly divergent gap genes that are related to gap3, and Ralstonia possesses a homolog of the gap1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences in the context of other eubacterial and eukaryotic GAPDH genes reveal that divergence across eubacterial gap1, and gap2, and gap3 genes is greater than that between eubacterial gap1 and eukaroytic glycolytic GapC or between eubacterial gap2 and eukaryotic Calvin cycle GapAB. These data strongly support previous analyses which suggested that eukaryotes acquired their nuclear genes for GapC and GapAB via endosymbiotic gene transfer from the antecedents of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and extend the known range of sequence diversity of the antecedent eubacterial genes. Analyses of available GAPDH sequences from other eubacterial sources indicate that the glycosomal gap gene from trypanosomes (cytosolic in Euglena) and the gap gene from the spirochete Treponema pallidum are each other's closest relatives. This specific relationship can therefore not reflect organismal evolution but must be the result of an interkingdom gene transfer, the direction of which cannot be determined with certainty at present. Contrary to this, the origin of the cytosolic Gap gene from trypanosomes can now be clearly defined as gamma-proteobacterial, since the newly established Ralstonia sequence (beta-proteobacteria) branches basally to the gamma-proteobacterial/trypanosomal assemblage.

PMID:
10331270
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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