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Theor Popul Biol. 1999 Apr;55(2):176-88.

Effective size and F-statistics of subdivided populations for sex-linked loci.

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College of Animal Science, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou, 310029, People's Republic of China.


For a population subdivided into an arbitrary number (s) of subpopulations, each consisting of different numbers of separate sexes, with arbitrary distributions of family size and variable migration rates by males (dm) and females (df), the recurrence equations for inbreeding coefficient and coancestry between individuals within and among subpopulations for a sex-linked locus are derived and the corresponding expressions for asymptotic effective size are obtained by solving the recurrence equations. The usual assumptions are made which are stable population size and structure, discrete generations, the island migration model, and without mutation and selection. The results show that population structure has an important effect on the inbreeding coefficients in any generation, asymptotic effective size, and F-statistics. Gene exchange among subpopulations inhibits inbreeding in initial generations but increases inbreeding in later generations. The larger the migration rate, the greater the final inbreeding coefficients and the smaller the effective size. Thus if the inbreeding coefficient is to be restricted to a specific value within a given number of generations, the appropriate population structure (the values of s, dm, and df) can be obtained by using the recurrence equations. It is shown that the greater the extent of subdivision (large s, small dm and df), the larger the effective size. For a given subdivided population, the effective size for a sex-linked locus may be larger or smaller than that for an autosomal locus, depending on the sex ratio, variance and covariance of family size, and the extend of subdivision. For the special case of a single unsubdivided population, our recurrence equations for inbreeding coefficient and coancestry and formulas for effective size reduce to the simple expressions derived by previous authors.

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