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Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999 Apr;2(2):135-41.

Anti-sigma factors.

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Section of Microbiology, Wing Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-8101, USA.


Anti-sigma factors modulate the expression of numerous regulons controlled by alternative sigma factors. Anti-sigma factors are themselves regulated by either secretion from the cell (i.e. FlgM export through the hook-basal body), sequestration by an anti-anti-sigma (i.e. phosphorylation regulated partner-switching modules), or interaction with extracytoplasmic proteins or small molecule effectors (i.e. transmembrane regulators of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors). Recent highlights include the genetic description of the opposed sigma/anti-sigma binding surfaces; the unexpected role of FlgM in holoenzyme destabilization and the finding that folding of FlgM is coupled to sigma28 binding; the first structure determination for an anti-sigma antagonist; and the detailed dissection of two complex partner-switching modules in Bacillus subtilis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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