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Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Apr;11(2):180-5.

Helper T cell differentiation.

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  • 1Trudeau Institute, PO Box 59, Algonquin Avenue, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA.


The differentiation of Th cells is regulated at different points by antigen and by other factors in a complex fashion that allows impressive flexibility in the T cell response generated and enables close control at multiple points to prevent an unwanted response. Studies over the past two years have uncovered several principles of this regulation, including a new appreciation of the critical role of survival factors in determining the success of the immune response. New insights into the details of CD4(+) T cell regulation will provide important clues as to how immune responses are regulated, in particular the generation of effector responses and development of long-lived immunity.

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