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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999 Apr;9(2):191-8.

Stopped at the border: boundaries and insulators.

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Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Room 212, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


Boundaries in chromatin are often marked by the presence of insulator elements. New results in Drosophila have identified an insulator with a proven boundary function essential for development. Other studies suggest a connection between the activity of some insulators and Drosophila trithorax-Group and Polycomb-Group genes. Several examples of vertebrate insulators have now been found; their locations suggest important boundary functions. Enhancer-blocking studies in oocytes and position-effect studies in transformed cells shed new light on insulator mechanisms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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