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Trends Ecol Evol. 1999 Feb;14(2):49-53.

The evolution of mutualisms: exploring the paths between conflict and cooperation.


Mutualisms are of fundamental importance in all ecosystems but their very existence poses a series of challenging evolutionary questions. Recently, the application of molecular analyses combined with theoretical advances have transformed our understanding of many specific systems, thereby contributing to the possibility of a more general understanding of the factors that influence mutualisms.

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