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Am J Pathol. 1999 Apr;154(4):1181-91.

C10 is a novel chemokine expressed in experimental inflammatory demyelinating disorders that promotes recruitment of macrophages to the central nervous system.

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Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


Chemokines may be important in the control of leukocytosis in inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. We studied cerebral chemokine expression during the evolution of diverse neuroinflammatory disorders in transgenic mice with astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein-targeted expression of the cytokines IL-3, IL-6, or IFN-alpha and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Distinct chemokine gene expression patterns were observed in the different central nervous system inflammatory models that may determine the phenotype and perhaps the functions of the leukocytes that traffic into the brain. Notably, high expression of C10 and C10-related genes was found in the cerebellum and spinal cord of GFAP-IL3 mice with inflammatory demyelinating disease and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In both these neuroinflammatory models, C10 RNA and protein expressing cells were predominantly macrophage/microglia and foamy macrophages present within demyelinating lesions as well as in perivascular infiltrates and meninges. Intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant C10 protein promoted the recruitment of large numbers of Mac-1(+) cells and, to a much lesser extent, CD4(+) lymphocytes into the meninges, choroid plexus, ventricles, and parenchyma of the brain. Thus, C10 is a prominent chemokine expressed in the central nervous system in experimental inflammatory demyelinating disease that, we show, also acts as a potent chemotactic factor for the migration of these leukocytes to the brain.

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