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J Invest Dermatol. 1999 May;112(5):788-95.

Spatial and temporal expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein during wound healing.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.


Parathyroid hormone-related protein is produced by many normal tissues including the skin, where it regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes. To define better the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the skin, we investigated the spatial and temporal expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization during the healing of skin wounds, and the effects of topical administration of a parathyroid hormone-related protein agonist [parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36)] and a parathyroid hormone-related protein antagonist [parathyroid hormone (7-34)] on the healing rate and morphology of the wounds. Wounds were produced on the back of guinea pigs with a 4 mm punch, and wound sites were collected at different time points during the healing process. Parathyroid hormone-related protein was expressed in normal skin by all viable keratinocyte layers, hair follicles, and adnexae. Following injury, migratory keratinocytes at wound margins and the newly restored epidermis expressed increased levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein. The remodeling phase was associated with progressive restoration of the pattern of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression in normal epidermis. Granulation tissue myofibroblasts and infiltrating macrophages also expressed parathyroid hormone-related protein. In vitro studies using THP-1 cells (a promonocytic cell line) confirmed that macrophages expressed parathyroid hormone-related protein, especially after activation. Topical application of parathyroid hormone related protein (1-36) or parathyroid hormone (7-34) did not result in significant changes in the healing rate and morphology of the wounds. These findings demonstrated that, in addition to keratinocytes, myofibroblasts and macrophages also represent sources of parathyroid hormone-related protein during the healing of skin wounds. Although the data suggest a role for parathyroid hormone-related protein in the healing of skin and in the restoration of epidermal homeostasis, parathyroid hormone-related protein does not appear to be required for proper re-epithelialization in response to injury, potentially because of redundancy in epidermal growth and wound healing, as has been shown for other paracrine and autocrine growth factors of the epidermis.

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