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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1999 Mar 29;68(1):1-11.

The effect of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant mares with 1,3/1,6 glucan and levamisole on the immunoglobulins levels in colostrum, selected indices of nonspecific cellular and humoral immunity in foals in neonatal and postnatal period.

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Department and Clinic of Veterinary Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Agriculture, Lublin, Poland.


The objectives of the studies were to evaluate the effect of levamisole and 1,3/1,6 glucan applied in pregnant mares on parameters of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity of foals. Eighteen mares in three experimental groups (six animals in each) and their progeny were examined. Multiparous mares, crossbreed of Polish, full-blood and Hannover lines (400-500 kg), 4-9 years old, originated from four different farms. They were kept under identical zoohygienic and nutritional conditions. The animals were randomly chosen in experimental groups. None of mares had been previously vaccinated. In group I, levamisole was injected three times at 7-day intervals at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group II was injected at the same periods of time and manner with 1,3/1,6 glucan at a dose of 0.19 mg/kg of body weight, whereas mares in group III served as controls. Injection of the immunostimulators started in mares 4-6 weeks before expected parturition. Blood was taken from foals before the first dose of colostrum, then 18 and 36 h after the first dose of colostrum and on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 of life. The parameters determined in blood were reduction of NBT by PMNs, phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, test of intracellular killing and in blood sera were total protein, gamma-globulin fraction, lysozyme activity, level of IgG, IgG(T), IgM and IgA. In the first dose of colostrum taken just after parturition, specific gravity, total protein, gamma-globulin complex, lysozyme activity, level of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, IgA were determined. Colostrum of mares immunostimulated with levamisole or 1,3/1,6 glucan were characterized by a high content of IgG and IgG(T) compared to the colostrum of nonstimulated mares. The level of immunity was higher in foals from dams immunostimulated with levamisole or 1,3/1,6 glucan. Clinical examinations in neonatal and postnatal period did not show any abnormalities in these foals.

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