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Neuron. 1999 Apr;22(4):751-61.

Increased activity in human visual cortex during directed attention in the absence of visual stimulation.

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Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


When subjects direct attention to a particular location in a visual scene, responses in the visual cortex to stimuli presented at that location are enhanced, and the suppressive influences of nearby distractors are reduced. What is the top-down signal that modulates the response to an attended versus an unattended stimulus? Here, we demonstrate increased activity related to attention in the absence of visual stimulation in extrastriate cortex when subjects covertly directed attention to a peripheral location expecting the onset of visual stimuli. Frontal and parietal areas showed a stronger signal increase during this expectation than did visual areas. The increased activity in visual cortex in the absence of visual stimulation may reflect a top-down bias of neural signals in favor of the attended location, which derives from a fronto-parietal network.

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