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Mol Cell. 1999 Apr;3(4):521-6.

Phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor SF-1 modulates cofactor recruitment: integration of hormone signaling in reproduction and stress.

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Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0444, USA.


Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that serves as an essential regulator of many hormone-induced genes in the vertebrate endocrine system. The apparent absence of a SF-1 ligand prompted speculation that this receptor is regulated by alternative mechanisms involving signal transduction pathways. Here we show that maximal SF-1-mediated transcription and interaction with general nuclear receptor cofactors depends on phosphorylation of a single serine residue (Ser-203) located in a major activation domain (AF-1) of the protein. Moreover, phosphorylation-dependent SF-1 activation is likely mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. We propose that this single modification of SF-1 and the subsequent recruitment of nuclear receptor cofactors couple extracellular signals to steroid and peptide hormone synthesis, thereby maintaining dynamic homeostatic responses in stress and reproduction.

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