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Urology. 1999 May;53(5):978-84.

Conformal proton therapy for early-stage prostate cancer.

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Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, California 92354, USA.



To assess the effect of proton radiation on clinical and biochemical outcomes for early prostate cancer.


Three hundred nineteen patients with T1-T2b prostate cancer and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels 15.0 ng/mL or less received conformal radiation doses of 74 to 75 cobalt gray equivalent with protons alone or combined with photons. No patient had pre- or post-treatment hormonal therapy until disease progression was documented. Patients were evaluated for biochemical disease-free survival, PSA nadir, and toxicity; the mean and median follow-up period was 43 months.


Overall 5-year clinical and biochemical disease-free survival rates were 97% and 88%, respectively. Initial PSA level, stage, and post-treatment PSA nadir were independent prognostic variables for biochemical disease-free survival: a PSA nadir 0.5 ng/mL or less was associated with a 5-year biochemical disease-free survival rate of 98%, versus 88% and 42% for nadirs 0.51 to 1.0 and greater than 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. No severe treatment-related morbidity was seen.


It appears that patients treated with conformal protons have 5-year biochemical disease-free survival rates comparable to those who undergo radical prostatectomy, and display no significant toxicity. A Phase III randomized dose-escalation trial is underway to define the optimum radiation dose for early-stage prostate cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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