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Psychiatry Res. 1999 Feb 22;85(2):209-13.

No association between C-45T polymorphism in the Sp1 binding site of the promoter region of the cholecystokinin gene and alcoholism.

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Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.


The activity of dopamine-containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens may play a role in alcoholism. Cholecystokinin (CCK) co-exists in a large proportion of A10 dopamine neurons to exert some effect on dopamine-induced behavior. Recently, a C-45T polymorphism was discovered in the Sp1 binding site in the CCK gene promoter region. We investigated an association between the polymorphism and alcoholism in 209 Japanese DSM-III-R alcoholics and 113 Japanese control subjects. The patients and the control subjects had similar allele and genotype frequencies: the T allele frequencies were 0.27 in the patients and 0.28 in the control subjects and the CC, CT, and the TT genotype frequencies 0.53, 0.39, and 0.08 in the alcoholics and 0.53, 0.37, and 0.10 in the control subjects. Frequencies of clinical characteristics of Feighner's criteria for the lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism were not significantly different among the patient groups divided by the genotype. These findings indicate that the polymorphism has no major effect on the etiology of alcoholism.

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