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J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1999 Mar-Apr;7(2):81-91.

Anesthesia and analgesia for the ambulatory management of fractures in children.

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Vanderbilt University Medical Center, MCN D-4207, Nashville, TN 37232-2550, USA.


The goal of anesthesia in the ambulatory management of fractures in children is to provide analgesia and relieve anxiety in order to facilitate successful closed treatment of the skeletal injury. Numerous techniques short of general anesthesia are available. These methods include blocks (local, regional, and intravenous), sedation (conscious and deep), and dissociative anesthesia (ketamine sedation). Important factors in choosing a particular technique include ease of administration, efficacy, safety, cost, and patient and parent acceptance. Local and regional techniques, such as hematoma, axillary, and intravenous regional blocks, are particularly effective for upper-extremity fractures. Sedation with inhalation agents, such as nitrous oxide, and parenterally administered narcotic-benzodiazepine combinations, are not region-specific and are suitable for patients over a wide range of ages. Ketamine sedation is an excellent choice for children less than 10 years old. With any technique, proper monitoring and adherence to safety guidelines are essential.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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