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Haemophilia. 1999 Mar;5(2):101-5.

Anaphylactic response to factor IX replacement therapy in haemophilia B patients: complete gene deletions confer the highest risk.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA.


Haemophilia B is an X-linked recessive coagulopathy due to mutations in the factor IX gene. Occasionally, patients receiving factor IX replacement therapy develop inhibiting antibodies to the factor IX protein, and it has been recently documented that a subset of these patients have had anaphylactic responses to factor IX replacement therapy in association with the development of inhibiting antibodies. To determine the relationship between mutation type and the risk of anaphylaxis, eight unrelated patients from families in whom anaphylaxis had occurred were genotyped. The mutations were compared to those in 550 haemophilia B patients and to those in 276 patients with clinically severe disease. Individuals with complete gene deletions were found to be at greatest risk for anaphylaxis, with an estimated risk of 26% or greater. Anaphylaxis was less likely to occur in patients with protein truncation mutations or partial gene deletions and least likely to occur with missense mutations. Genotypes can help physicians and patients anticipate the likelihood of anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening complication of factor IX replacement therapy. The very high risk of anaphylaxis associated with a complete gene deletion suggests that the lack of expression of a partial protein product may predispose to anaphylaxis and/or that the absence of a closely linked, codeleted gene enhances the anaphylactic immune response.

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