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Leukemia. 1999 Apr;13(4):524-9.

A prospective study of autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after intensive chemotherapy in myelodysplastic syndromes. Groupe Français des Myélodysplasies. Group Ouest-Est d'étude des Leucémies aiguës myéloïdes.

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Service des Maladies du Sang, CHU, Lille, France.


We prospectively assessed autologous stem cell transplantation for consolidation treatment in a trial of intensive chemotherapy in high risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In this trial, patients aged 55 years or less with no HLA-identical sibling and achieving CR were scheduled to receive unmanipulated autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) preceded by a consolidation chemotherapy course. Forty-two of the 83 patients aged 55 years or less included in the trial (51%) achieved CR. Three were allografted in CR. Twenty-four of the remaining 39 patients who achieved CR (62%) received ABMT (16 patients) or autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APSCT) (eight patients). Indeed, as bone marrow harvest was often insufficient, APSCT was subsequently proposed after mobilization by consolidation chemotherapy followed by G-CSF. The conditioning regimen combined cyclophosphamide and busulfan. ABMT and APSCT were performed 1-7 months (median 3) after CR achievement. Hematological reconstitution occurred in all patients and tended to be faster after APSCT than ABMT although not significantly. Three patients died from the procedure, nine relapsed after 2-26 months and 12 (50%) were still in CR after 8-55 months. In autografted patients, median Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival and survival were 29 and 33 months from the autograft, respectively. Thus, ABMT or APSCT can be performed in almost two-thirds of MDS patients who achieve CR with intensive chemotherapy. PBSC collection may yield higher numbers of stem cells than marrow collection in some cases, and could improve the percentage of MDS patients autografted in CR. Longer follow-up is required to determine if autograft will prolong CR duration in at least some patients.

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