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Br J Nutr. 1998 Dec;80(6):521-7.

Physical state of meal affects gastric emptying, cholecystokinin release and satiety.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Milan, Italy.


To verify the influence of food consistency on satiety mechanisms we evaluated the effects of the same meal in solid-liquid (SM) and homogenized (HM) form on satiety sensation, gastric emptying rate and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration. Eight healthy men, aged 21-28 (mean 24.5) years were given two meals (cooked vegetables 250 g, cheese 35 g, croutons 50 g and olive oil 25 g, total energy 2573 kJ, with water 300 ml) differing only in physical state: SM and HM. The subjects consumed the meals in randomized order on non-consecutive days. The sensations of fullness, satiety and desire to eat were evaluated by means of a questionnaire, gastric emptying was assessed by ultrasonographic measurement of antral area, and plasma CCK concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The vegetable-rich meal was significantly more satiating (P < 0.05) when in the HM form than when eaten in a SM state. Furthermore, the overall gastric emptying time was significantly slowed (255 (SEM 11) min after HM v. 214 (SEM 12) min after SM; P < 0.05) and CCK peak occurred later (94 (SEM 12) min after HM v. 62 (SEM 11) min after SM; NS) when the food was consumed in the HM form. Independently of the type of meal, antral area was significantly related to fullness sensations (r2 0.46, P = 0.004). These results demonstrate that meal consistency is an important physical food characteristic which influences both gastric emptying rate and satiety sensation. Moreover, the relationship observed between antral area and fullness sensation confirms that antral distension plays a part in the regulation of eating behaviour.

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