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Fluid balance therapy of nocturia in women.

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Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand.


Nocturia is a common and troublesome symptom in otherwise healthy elderly men and women. Nocturnal polyuria (an excessive nighttime urine output) has been documented to be a common finding in healthy men with lower urinary tract symptoms. It is also a presenting feature of various medical conditions, such as renal failure, hypercalcemia and diabetes. Fluid balance therapy is an option in those whose nocturia is secondary to nocturnal polyuria. If a reduction in fluid intake fails to reduce nocturnal frequency a variety of drug treatments may be beneficial. Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of intranasal DDAVP, a synthetic analog of antidiuretic hormone, in both healthy patients and those with neuropathic bladders, although fluid overload and hyponatremia are potential side effects. Other drug treatments include early evening diuretics, such as frusemide or bumetanide. More recently imipramine has shown therapeutic benefit in young adults with enuresis, and might prove to be useful in the elderly with nocturnal polyuria.

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