Send to

Choose Destination
AIDS. 1999 Feb 4;13(2):257-62.

A prospective study of HIV disease progression in female and male drug users.

Author information

Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467, USA.



To compare HIV disease progression and mortality in a cohort of female and male drug users.


A prospective cohort study of 222 HIV-seropositive women and 302 HIV-seropositive men who attended a hospital-affiliated methadone maintenance program with on-site primary care.


Regression slopes of CD4+ cell decline were compared using the two sample t-test, and the distribution of AIDS-defining illnesses evaluated by Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test. Time to AIDS-defining clinical conditions and death were compared using the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test. Multivariate estimates of progression to clinical AIDS or death, for all participants, stratified by sex, were derived from Cox proportional hazards models.


Ninety-five persons (43 women and 52 men) developed AIDS-defining conditions. Analyses of the rates of CD4+ cell decline, the distribution of first AIDS-defining illnesses, and the time to clinical AIDS did not differ by sex. In the multivariate model, sex was not associated with an AIDS outcome, whereas crack-cocaine use [hazards ratio (HR), 1.815; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.151-2.863], CD4+ cell count (100 x 10(6)/l; HR, 0.589; 95% CI, 0.511-0.679), and two or more HIV-related symptoms (HR, 1.702; 95% CI, 1.125-2.576) were associated. Mortality rates (8.71 per 100 person-years in women and 9.85 per 100 person-years in men) were similar, using univariate or multivariate methods.


There was little difference in clinical outcomes or mortality between HIV-seropositive female and male drug users with access to primary care. However, crack-cocaine use was independently associated with progression to clinical AIDS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center