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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Mar 20;15(5):461-70.

CD8+ lymphocyte antiviral activity in monkeys immunized with SIV recombinant poxvirus vaccines: potential role in vaccine efficacy.

Author information

1
Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4255, USA.

Abstract

Protection against intravenous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge was assessed in rhesus macaques after immunization with a highly attenuated vaccinia (NYVAC)-SIV recombinant. One-third of vaccinated animals controlled viral infection and progressed to disease more slowly than control animals (Benson J, et al.: J Virol 1998;72:4170). However, this protection was not associated with neutralizing antibodies, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or helper T cell responses. To explore other potential correlates of protection, we examined CD8+ T cell antiviral activity in macaques vaccinated with NYVAC-SIV, with or without added cytokine adjuvants, and in controls receiving only IL-12 or IL-12 plus IL-2. Before immunization, naive macaques exhibited a broad range of CD8+ T cell antiviral activity. Nevertheless, in the course of immunization, the vaccinated macaques as a group developed increased CD8+ T cell antiviral activity while the controls remained stable. Infectious SIV exposure also increased antiviral activity. Prechallenge antiviral activity levels of vaccinated macaques were not sufficient to prevent SIV transmission or control viral replication during acute infection. However, vaccinated animals consistently exhibited reduced viral loads postchallenge compared with controls. Moreover, high suppressive activity 8 weeks postchallenge, at which time the viremia set point was established, was significantly correlated with reduced viral load and slow disease progression. Prechallenge antiviral activity influenced this result, as decreased viremia and slow progressor status were more apparent in macaques with high suppressive activity both pre- and postchallenge. Our data demonstrate the impact of CD8+ antiviral activity on viral replication and disease progression, and suggest that vaccine designs able to elicit high levels of this activity will contribute significantly to protective efficacy.

PMID:
10195756
DOI:
10.1089/088922299311213
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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