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Int J Dermatol. 1999 Feb;38(2):108-10.

Squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma of the lower lip associated with "Goza" and "Shisha" smoking.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.



A positive correlation between lip and buccal cancers and pipe smoking has been suggested. Various types of crude and manufactured tobacco products are consumed by smoking, chewing, and snuff dipping habits. 'Shisha" and 'Goza' smoking are widely practiced in the Middle East. The 'hubble-bubble' method and apparatus are used. These smoking habits are hazardous to health, causing obstructive lung disease, and may be important predisposing factors for the development of oral cancers.


Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma and a case of keratoacanthoma localized to the lower lip are presented in well-known 'Shisha' and 'Goza" smokers.


"Shisha" and 'Goza' smoking have adverse effects on general health and may predispose to oral cancer. An extensive epidemiological study should be performed to determine whether this type of smoking habit is associated with a statistically increased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma of the lips.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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