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Nurs Res. 1999 Mar-Apr;48(2):71-7.

The perimenopausal transition of Filipino American midlife women: biopsychosociocultural dimensions.

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  • 1University of Arizona, College of Nursing, Tucson 85721-0203, USA.



To describe the biologic, psychological, social, and cultural (biopsychosociocultural) dimensions of the perimenopausal transition of Filipino American midlife women.


A community-based sample of 165 women (a) self-identified as Filipino American, (b) ages 35 to 56 years, and (c) English language proficient was recruited from churches and social groups.


Women in the study were born in the Philippines (93.3%), had lived in the United States an average of 18.4 +/- 8.7 years, were married or partnered (74.6%), had completed college (62.8%) or a graduate degree (15.9%), worked (full-time, 77.9%; part-time, 12.9%), had household incomes greater than $50,000 (>58%). Menopause ages were calculated from reports of last menstrual periods (natural, 48.9 +/- 4.9 years; surgical, 42.2 +/- 5.7 years). Neither the age at menarche nor the number of pregnancies and children born was significantly related to age at menopause. Calcium from food sources was generally low, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) revealed a 24.8% depression rate. The low prevalence of physical health problems confirms previous research that foreign-born individuals have better health than those born in the United States.


The profile of this understudied group identified calcium intake, osteoporosis morbidity, and prevalence of depression as key areas for future study.

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