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Am J Health Promot. 1998 Jan-Feb;12(3):154-61.

Predicting the adoption and maintenance of exercise participation using self-efficacy and previous exercise participation rates.

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Department of Health Promotion Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City 73190, USA.



To investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, changes in self-efficacy, past exercise participation, future exercise adherence, and exercise program format.


Two-year randomized trial involving subjects (n = 63) participating in an aerobic exercise program. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three exercise conditions: higher-intensity home-based exercise, higher-intensity class-based exercise, or lower-intensity home-based exercise.


Results indicated that baseline self-efficacy and exercise format had significant (p < .02), independent effects on adherence during the adoption and early maintenance phases of exercise behavior. In contrast, in predicting long-term exercise program maintenance, a significant (p < .05) self-efficacy x exercise format interaction indicated that self-efficacy predicted adherence only in the supervised home-based exercise conditions. Results also suggest that baseline self-efficacy, independent of the effect of past adherence, significantly (p < .03) predicted exercise adherence during the adoption phase, but not early maintenance phase, of exercise behavior. Finally, adherence change during the adoption phase of exercise behavior significantly (p < .04) predicted Year-one levels of self-efficacy even after adjusting for the effect of baseline self-efficacy.


These results suggest that exercise program format as well as an individual's initial cognitive and behavioral experiences in an exercise program play significant roles in determining exercise adherence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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