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Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1976 Dec;53(12):774-85.

Effective degree of mydriasis with phenylephrine and tropicamide.

Abstract

The mydriatic effects of several concentrations of phenylephrine and of tropicamide were studied in 84 young adults for 90 min following topical instillation. Pupillary diameter was estimated (a) under ambient photopic illumination and (b) when illumination was increased to that associated with direct ophthalmoscopy. Evaluation was made of the "degree of mydriasis," i.e., the difference in pupillary diameter between the eye receiving the mydriatic agent and the contralateral control eye when the pupillary light reflex was stimulated. In subjects with light or hazel irides, phenylephrine caused maximal dilatation in 60 to 75 min, mean values being 5.6 mm with 1 drop of 2%, 6.0 mm with 2 drops of 2.5%, and 7.1 mm with 1 drop of 10%. Maxiumum degrees of mydriasis were 3.0 mm with 2 drops of 2.5% and 3.1 mm with 1 drop of 10%. With 0.5% tropicamide, maximum diameter was 8.0 mm in 30 min in subjects with light, hazel, or brown irides, and the maximum degree of mydriasis was 5.0 mm. It is concluded that when a mydriatic agent is used to facilitate intraocular visualization, neither specification in terms of (a) maximum diameter under ambient illumination nor (b) degree of mydriasis provides optimal characterization. It is suggested that the "clinically effective diameter," i.e., pupillary diameter under illumination corresponding to that to be used during examination, would be the most useful specification.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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